Industrial style or industrial chic refers to an aesthetic trend in interior design that takes clues from old factories and industrial spaces that in recent years have been converted to lofts and other living spaces. Components of industrial style include weathered wood, building systems, exposed brick, industrial lighting fixtures and concrete.
Scandinavian design is a design movement characterized by simplicity, minimalism and functionality that emerged in the 1950s in the five Nordic countries of Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Denmark.
The idea that beautiful and functional everyday objects should not only be affordable to the wealthy, but to all, is a core theme in the development of modernism and functionalism. This is probably most completely realized in post-WWII Scandinavian design. Scandinavian design often makes use of form-pressed wood, plastics, anodized or enameled aluminum or pressed steel.
Modern & Contemporary
Modern Style and Contemporary Style are often thought to be synonymous, but are actually two separate styles hailing from different eras. The Modern style developed during the early 1900s, inspired by the Industrial Revolution, the machine era. Emphasis is placed on functionalism, the avoidance of ornamental design, and the use of glass, chrome and simple, often geometric shapes.
Contemporary design however refers to the style that is currently in fashion. Contemporary interiors currently borrow heavily from Modern style, and as such you may find similarities in both Modern and Contemporary interiors, hence the confusion, and the reason why many people use the two terms interchangeably. Contemporary interior design during this decade pairs simplicity - that's where the Modern element kicks in - with accents that contrast this, for example with a brightly coloured accessory, or flashy wall art.
The concept of Minimalism in interior design is to strip everything down to its essential quality and achieve simplicity. The idea is not completely without ornamentation, but that all parts, details, and joinery are considered as reduced to a stage where no one can remove anything further to improve the design.
Japanese Zen philosophy, which also embraces simplicity, manifests in Japanese architecture and design. It is no wonder then, that it in turn influences the development of the Minimalist style globally.
Minimalist interiors typically utilise basic geometric forms, repetition, and monochromatic colour combinations.